Teaming Up or Down? A Multisource Study on the Role of Team Identification and Learning in the Team Diversity-Performance Link

Prior literature paints an incoherent picture on the relationship between team diversity and performance. The current article investigates circumstances under which demographic diversity (gender and nationality) facilitates performance. Based on the categorization-elaboration model, we build a theoretical framework to demonstrate the crucial role of team learning and efficacy as mediators, and team identification as a moderator to understand how and when demographic diversity facilitates team performance. In a cross-sectional study among 72 project teams, data were collected from multiple sources (self-reports, database, and performance assessments) to obtain objective and subjective indices of team diversity and performance. Results from a multigroup structural equation model showed that team diversity facilitated performance for teams with a strong, but not a weak, collective team identity. Second, team diversity facilitated performance through increased team learning and team efficacy only for teams with a strong team identity. Finally, multisource data revealed a different pattern of results for objective and subjective measures. The objective diversity index seemed a more powerful predictor of performance compared with the subjective index, particularly for strongly identifying teams. These findings provide valuable insight for increasingly diversifying organizations, on the circumstances under which team diversity’s potential flourishes. Moreover, it underlines the importance of data triangulation as objective and subjective measures of diversity are conceptually different and show incoherent empirical findings in the diversity-performance link across extant literature.

Citation
van Veelen, R., & Ufkes, E. G. (2017). Teaming Up or Down? A Multisource Study on the Role of Team Identification and Learning in the Team Diversity-Performance Link. Group & Organizational Management, 1-31. http://doi.org/10.1177/1059601117750532

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Crime Seriousness and Participation in Restorative Justice: The Role of Time Elapsed Since the Offense.

Restorative justice policies and programs aimed at facilitating victim–offender mediation (VOM) are part of many criminal justice systems around the world. Given its voluntary nature and potential for positive outcomes, the appropriateness and feasibility of VOM after serious offenses is subject to debate in the literature. In light of this discussion, this study first aimed to unravel the prevalence of serious offenses in cases registered for VOM and examined whether crime seriousness predicts whether mediated contact is reached between victims and offenders. Second, it tested the hypothesis that victims of increasingly serious, harmful crimes are more willing to participate when more time has elapsed since the offense—in contrast to victims of less serious, harmful crimes. We analyzed 199 cases registered for VOM in the Netherlands and coded the perceived wrongfulness, harmfulness, and average duration of incarceration of an offense as 3 distinct indicators of crime seriousness in these cases. The findings revealed that cases registered for VOM (a) are, in terms of the incarceration duration, on average more serious than all offenses in the population, and (b) resulted in mediated contact (or not) independently of the 3 seriousness indicators. In addition, empirical support was found for the hypothesis that victims’ willingness to participate in VOM increased over time after more harmful offenses, whereas it decreased when offenses inflicted less harm. These findings suggest that when VOM programs operate irrespectively of the time elapsed after crime, mediated contact between parties may be as likely after minor and serious offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Citation
Zebel, S., Schreurs, W., & Ufkes, E. G. (2017). Crime Seriousness and Participation in Restorative Justice: The Role of Time Elapsed Since the Offense. Law and Human Behavior, 41, 385-397. http://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000242

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Catching a Deceiver in the Act: Processes Underlying Deception in an Interactive Interview Setting

Lying is known to evoke stress and cognitive load. Both form cues to deception and lead to an increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. But in reality, deceivers stick to the truth most the time and only lie occasionally. The present study therefore examined in an interactive suspect interview setting, whether deceivers still have clearly diverging cognitive and emotional processes from truth tellers when only having the intention to lie incidentally. We found that deceivers who lied constantly diverge from truth tellers in SNS activity, self-reported cognitive load and stress. Across all interviews, SNS activity correlated stronger with self-reports of cognitive load than stress, which supports the cognitive load approach. Furthermore, deceivers who told the truth and lied on only one crucial question, particularly diverged in self-reported stress from truth-tellers. In terms of SNS activity and self-reported cognitive load, no differences were found. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Citation
Ströfer, S., Ufkes, E. G., Noordzij, M. L., & Giebels, E. (2016). Catching a Deceiver in the Act: Processes Underlying Deception in an Interactive Interview Setting. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 1–14. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-016-9339-8

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The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

We examined why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices.

Citation
Giebels, E., de Reuver, R. S. M., Rispens, S., & Ufkes, E. G. (2016). The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1–22. http://doi.org/10.1177/0021886316648774

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Interviewing Suspects with Avatars: Avatars Are More Effective When Perceived as Human

It has been consistently demonstrated that deceivers generally can be discriminated from truth tellers by monitoring an increase in their physiological response. But is this still the case when deceivers interact with a virtual avatar? The present research investigated whether the mere “belief” that the virtual avatar is computer or human operated forms a crucial factor for eliciting physiological cues to deception. Participants were interviewed about a transgression they had been seduced to commit, by a human-like virtual avatar. In a between-subject design, participants either deceived or told the truth about this transgression. During the interviews, we measured the physiological responses assessing participants’ electrodermal activity (EDA). In line with our hypothesis, EDA differences between deceivers and truth tellers only were significant for participants who believed they interacted with a human operated (compared to a computer operated) avatar. These results have theoretical as well as practical implications which we will discuss.

Citation
Ströfer, S., Ufkes, E. G., Bruijnes, M., Giebels, E., & Noordzij, M. L. (2016). Interviewing Suspects with Avatars: Avatars are More Effective When Perceived as Human. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-9. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00545

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Understanding how Common Ingroup Identity Undermines Collective Action Among Disadvantaged-Group Members

Past research has consistently demonstrated that creating a sense of a common ingroup identity can be beneficial for reducing intergroup tensions and creating intergroup harmony. At the same time, however, creating a strong sense of a common ingroup identity has elements that may undermine disadvantaged-group members’ motivation for collective action toward social change. In the present paper, we report two experiments that investigated how, compared to salient separate ethnic/racial identities, increasing the salience of a common US identity among Blacks and Latinos results in lower collective action intentions. These effects were mediated by a reduction in group-based anger and group- efficacy beliefs, and, in Experiment 2, reduced recognition of group-based inequality in society as well. Increasing salience of common ingroup and separate group identities simultaneously (a dual identity), however, did not decrease collective action intentions. These results suggest that not recategorization in itself, but an exclusive focus on common ingroup identity undermines motivation for social change.

Citation
Ufkes, E. G., Calcagno, J., Glasford, D. E., & Dovidio, J. F. (2016). Understanding how common ingroup identity undermines collective action among disadvantaged-group members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 26–35. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2015.11.006

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Included But Invisible? Subtle Bias, Common Identity, and the Darker Side of “We”

The present article discusses how seemingly well-intended policies and interventions to reduce intergroup bias by emphasizing colorblindness through overarching commonalities between groups may, either unintentionally or strategically, inhibit efforts to address group-based inequities. First, we discuss the roots of bias in social categorization process, and how changing the way people think about group memberships from separate groups to members of the same group with shared identity improves intergroup attitudes. Second, we describe the subtle nature of contemporary biases, which can help obscure group-based inequities. Third, we explain how and why majority and minority groups may have different preferences for recategorization and consider the potential consequences of these different perspectives for recognizing and addressing disparity and discrimination. We conclude by considering the policy and structural implications of these processes for achieving more equitable societies, not only in principle but also in practice.

Citation
Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Ufkes, E. G., Saguy, T., & Pearson, A. R. (2016). Included but Invisible? Subtle Bias, Common Identity, and the Darker Side of “We.” Social Issues and Policy Review, 10, 6–46. http://doi.org/10.1111/sipr.12017

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Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

Citation
Ströfer, S., Noordzij, M. L., Ufkes, E. G., & Giebels, E. (2015). Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated? PLoS ONE, 10, 1-17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125237

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Inclusive Identity and the Psychology of Social Change

Substantial work in social psychology has focused on reducing intergroup conflict and promoting positive intergroup attitudes. These interventions to reduce intergroup bias frequently emphasize the importance of inclusiveness and overarching commonalities among groups. However, a strict focus on harmony may sometimes have the unintended consequence of decreasing motivation for social change and collective action for both minority-and majority-group members. The present chapter explores the different ways factors that promote intergroup harmony can reduce or, in some circumstances, enhance motivations for collective action.

In particular, the research included in this chapter illustrates – conceptually and empirically – how promoting a focus solely on commonality and harmony can reinforce the status quo in ways that systematically benefit groups already enjoying social advantage. Focusing on harmony can reduce motivations for social change by distracting attention away from group-based inequality (i.e., reducing recognition of unfairness) and influence the way people appraise the efficacy of such action. However, recognizing both commonality and differences between group simultaneously can improve intergroup attitudes, produce positive intergroup motivations for understanding, and enhance willingness of both low and high status groups to take action to achieve equality.

New directions identified include recognition of the strategic role of colorblind and multicultural ideologies and the subtle influences of seemingly positive behavior in maintaining the status quo, as well as the potential for creating allies among high-status group members for social change that benefits disadvantaged groups.

Citation
Dovidio, J. F., Saguy, T., Ufkes, E. G., Scheepers, D., & Gaertner, S. L. (2015). Inclusive identity and the psychology of social change. In J. P. Forgas, K. Fiedler, and W. D. Crano (Eds.), Social Psychology and Politics. New York: Psychology Press. ISBN: 978-1-13-882968-8

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Identity and collective action among European Kurds

This research investigated the role of group-based anger and efficacy in explaining the effects of subgroup (ethnic) and common (European) identity on collective action among Kurds in Europe responding to different types of disadvantage. Whereas stronger Kurdish identity positively predicted intentions for collective action (mediated by anger and efficacy), stronger common ingroup identity was negatively related to collective action intentions. This effect occurred primarily when structural disadvantage was salient, not when attention was drawn to a specific incident of disadvantage, and was mediated by anger but not efficacy. The findings complement recent work demonstrating that intergroup harmony can undermine social change, suggesting that stronger common-group identification reduces collective action by reducing minority-group members’ sensitivity to potential bias against them.

Citation
Ufkes, E. G., Dovidio, J. F., & Tel, G. (2015). Identity and collective action among European Kurds. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 176–186. doi:10.1111/bjso.12084

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